When a model of a character is ready we can start texturing it. Texture – is an image laid over the surface of 3D model in order to add surface finish, color or relief to it.
Texturing – is a very important stage in creation of 3D model: it gives the artist the possibility of adding small details, such as cracks, wrinkles, grains and corrugations, making it look real.
For the correct application of textures over the surface of a model one should first make an UVW mapping of it: the cover of the object is divided into separate fragments, connected between each over by joints, i.e. the model is practically “cut out” like a dress in a tailoring shop.
There exist both: separate specialized programs, with the help of which one can only perform the mapping of 3D models, and the sets of tools in big software packages like Maya or 3D Max for this procedure. While performing the mapping one should watch very carefully the grid, so that one of its parts does not stretch more than the other and all the details drawn by the artist are proportional to each other. Most often hands, legs, body, head and additional objects are separated.
Then the details are drawn. Except for the well-known Photoshop, there are programs which allow drawing the textures right on the surface of 3D model. On the obtained cutout the artist draws skin, adds wrinkles, bristle and other details, trying to achieve the maximal reality. It is not necessary to draw everything by hand, one can also use photos of needed surfaces, laying them over one another.
The displacement maps are also of no little significance: these are black-and-white textures, over which the surface of model is embossed. Thus, for example, a dark area on the displacement map means a deepening on the 3D model. As we know, there are no ideal shapes. If one looks closer, everything is covered with small corrugations, scratches, grains. And the displacement technology allows the unbelievable realistic simulation of any surfaces, from rocks to human skin…